The source of the water supply network
During the construction of the city water supply was taken into account that its abundance is such that it can promising to save water needs. Also very important were the results of chemical and bacteriological analyzes of water,, Šetonjskog springs ". Based on the tests, water,, Šetonjskog hot "is good for the city's water supply network.
Water ,, Šetonjskog spring "has a temperature ranging from 10-12 ° C. It belongs to medium hard water is clear, tasteless and odorless. All tested parameters are within the maximum permissible value.
However, the problem occurs after a major rainfall or rapid snowmelt, when the source of blur. Then turbidity exceeds the maximum permissible value, while all other parameters remain within the permissible values. In these cases, water is not suitable for drinking, there arises the problem of supplying the population of drinking water.
Tests of drinking water performed by the Institute for Public Health - Pozarevac, three times per month, and when the water is muddy and often.
The results of tests of treated drinking water shows the following:
1. Physical and chemical testing - all parameters showed that the tested sample of purified drinking water has parameter values that are within the maximum allowable amounts (see box)
2. Microbiological testing - the test sample does not show the presence of bacteria in the sample (see box)
3. Radiological examination. a sample of purified drinking water does not have the increased value of alpha and beta radiation (see box)
Analyzed from the point of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters can be concluded that raw water for most of the year, owns high qualitative characteristics (annual average about 90% of the time).
Do compromising the quality of drinking water sometimes comes at a time of intense rainfall and melting snow. Then a number of analyzed parameters appear in concentrations that are higher than permitted Ordinance on the hygienic quality of drinking water. Overdrafts above the values regulated registered in such cases for the following parameters: turbidity, coliforms, faecal coliforms and mesophilic aerobic bacteria.
Overall it can be concluded that the raw groundwater without color (<50 Rt - Co scale), tasteless and odorless, moderately cool (10-12 ° C) and has a very weak mineralization (225-324 mg / l) and low the content of anions and cations, reflecting the geological characteristics of the terrain with which the water is in contact.
Raw water indicates a low to moderate level of electrical conductivity (an average of 500 S / cm), which is in accordance with the level of its mineralization.
The content of chloride, nitrite and nitrate is several times lower than the maximum permitted concentration of these parameters in drinking water, and ranges respectively: for chlorides ≈ 5.2 mg / l for nitrite <0.005 mg / l for nitrate ≈ 9 mg / l . Bicarbonate concentration is also low, on average about 222 mg / l.
The concentrations of cations are below the maximum allowable value. The value range for calcium is in the range of 64.12 to 100.20 mg / l, for magnesium from 2.55 to 22.86 mg / l, and a summary of sodium and potassium ions are from 4.37 to 13.57 mg / l .
Value RN is relatively stable and is in the range of from 7.25 to 7.40 which is within the recommended range in the drinking water.
The raw water is very low content of organic pollution of natural origin, which is manifested by low consumption of hydrogen peroxide (KMnO4) - an average of 1.5 to 2.5 mg / l.
The content of ammonium ions in all the analyzed samples is below the maximum allowable concentration in drinking water (up to 1 NTU). Analysis showed that at the time of rain recorded lower intensity intermittent blur with a value of up to 5 NTU.
Chlorinated water samples for analysis were taken from the characteristic of measuring points in the local network. The analysis included the same parameters that were analyzed and the raw water, including the analysis of the content of residual chlorine. The results of the tests can be concluded that in all analyzed samples of residual chlorine content was in the range of allowed values in drinking water. The same can be said for all other analyzed physical, chemical and microbiological parameters.
Based on all the statements taken, bearing in mind the site of springs and characteristics of the local environment, it can be assumed that in the foreseeable future should not expect economic development and municipal infrastructure that directly or indirectly the operation of the anthropogenic factors that could distort the conditions of groundwater quality. Deviation from the standards of water quality for drinking water quality in real circumstances, it is possible for the parameter turbidity and some of microbiological parameters, mainly during intense rainfall and melting snow.
City water supply system was built and officially put into operation in 1973 At that time, the water supply system were connected to the city and the rural village Petrovac Many Laole. In the coming period the water distribution system in the city has been extended. On the water supply is connected to a new population, a significant part of the industry.
Today it is connected to city water, about 99% of the population of the city, and the villages of: Šetonje, Ćovdin, Veliko Laole and Leskovac.
The total water consumption from year to year increases. In 1984, the spending amounted to 500 000m3. In 1993 spending amounted to 790 000m3, in 1994g. for the first 8 months were spent 708 498m3. And in the coming years, water consumption has been increasing and now totals 1,000 000 m3 per year.
The building is located where the water production facility is located at the source of the area '' Šetonjskog springs'. Skop In this building there are facilities for chlorination and filtering plant. The part of the building, where it is hlorisnje water allocated to the storage room for a bottle of chlorine, and to accommodate equipment for chlorination.
The room for storing bottles of chlorine are stored spare bottle. Number of bottles is such that it allows the necessary reserves to 3 months of work.
Chlorination is performed using chlorine gas, adding the same directly into the pipeline using injectable pump a few meters from the exit captures. The amount of chlorine used for the chlorination of water is about 0.4 mg / l, and is determined by the comparator color and ranges from 0.2-0.5 mg / l.
The primary purpose of the chlorination of water disinfection of water, which means destruction of all germs present in the water, as well as preventive care distribution system from possible contamination. Chlorination equipment, as well as premises for its accommodation, dimenziosani for the existing capacity of water supply.
Chlorine is under normal conditions of temperature and pressure gas greenish in color with a strong irritating effect on the skin and mucous membranes. Chlorine reacts quickly and easily with many organic and inorganic substances, some of which reactions can be explosive.
Filter plant was built as the water treatment facility. Due to the poor design and poor construction work performed the facility after a few years phased out. Today is not used and for another reason, and that is the obsolescence of processing methods.
The source of the water supply network
The building was built in the city water supply in the area Šetonjskog springs, located at a height of 162 branches in the immediate foot of the mountain Ježevac visa and extends downstream from Šetonjske River, with smaller and larger than removal of the same. The source is far from the village Šetonje and surrounded by dense forest.
Facilities that are there are: catchment, water treatment stations, which includes the installation of chlorination and filter water treatment (which does not work) and other outbuildings. All these facilities are located at the source and the area around an area of about 5ha.
On the source is capped Karst spring Šetonjske river. Water intake structure with a reservoir volume of 600m3, with overflows at 1.82m from the bottom. Enough days in the year dressings work, which means that the amount of water that is significantly higher than the capped amount that is spent. The main losses from the water intake structures are not water losses, which bypasses ,, "capping, but losses are going through a wall made unsound catchment. (Kosovoprojekt, 1984)
Excess water from the catchment is poured to maintain a biological minimum Šetonjske river.
From spring water supply routes going to Petrovac with a length of 13 495m, largely passes over the fields and village Šetonje and Veliko Laole.
The first pass of the pipeline is under way IV order Šetonje - Ćovdin, where he made the water supply and discharge shaft also the turnoff for the village Šetonje, through which supplies water to the village. The route continues to move the left side of the village and in the field Šetonje ,, Breštane "Šetonjske passes beneath the river.
The pipeline is set below the road IV order Šetonje - Burovac and extends toward Svilajncu. After crossing the pipeline leads through the fields and passes Šetonjskog put Šetonje - V. Laole, where the drop of water and closures near the crossing and to and from one on the other side of the road Šetonje - V. Laole. Furthermore, the pipeline extends to the right side of the road V.Laolu, with smaller or larger than the aforementioned removal of the times, but not a suspension is not greater than 30m, and crosses the village Potes' V. Rid '', '' Radilug '' and '' Lug '', coming out on a journey V. Laole. - Petrovac, with a move to the right side of the road and leads through a residential area V. Laola, then separated from the populated part of and extends along the rural road that runs beside Potes' Poljane '' and '' Vrbice ''. Next, underpasses III Class V. Laole - Petrovac, where it extends to the left side of the road Petrovac with different removing, or almost in a straight line with the road passing through the field Potes 'Vrbice' ',' 'Gradac' '' 'Sip' 'part' 'Groves' farmland in Petrovac. At this length passes over several dirt roads. Passing under the river Busur where passes are made concrete. The pipeline extends further Potes' Busur '', passes under the road to Petrovac groves.
After crossing the pipeline ends with a diameter of 350mm profile performing under the name - MAIN SUPPLY to Petrovac and continues with a diameter of 250mm and become the new name of the performer's distribution network Petrovac. It extends the streets: Mining, Mlavska, where the front of the Health Center branches out in two directions, so that one passes under the river Mlave siphon through where they built 2 providing manholes and manhole to '' A '' on the left and manhole '' B '' on the right side of the river Mlava.
Pass under the Mlava river is bridged by two parallel steel tubes and fortified with concrete sleepers, among which is made of paving the level of the bottom of the river crushed stone, as well as approaches thresholds upstream and downstream. After crossing the river Mlave pipeline extends Bate Bulića street to street Petra Dobrnjca, then go ul. P. Dobrnjca to Petrovac, Petrovac leads from the street to the Serbian Rulers industrial zone. The pipeline is still set by the medical center down the street until October 8, leaving the city on the road to Zabrđe. With the construction of streets and neighborhoods of the city water supply has expanded. Besides the town of Petrovac, which is supplied with water from springs Šetonjskog, the city water are connected and villages Šetonje, Ćovdin, Veliko Laole and Leskovac.
Apart from these settlements that solve their unique water supply water supply system and other settlements should be oriented in similar troubleshooting water supply.
Based on the results of research sources Šetonjske River approached the construction of water supply system in Petrovac na Mlavi. Construction lasted in the period from 1970 -1973. Mr. City water supply system was officially put into operation in 1973, the, by regulation of labor source 'Šetonjske River' ', based on the project was conducted as a water management organization' 'Jasenica' '- Smederevska Palanka.
Water supply is gravity type, designed and constructed catchment and pipeline capacity of 35 l / s. When designing did not take into account the water needs of the economy but to the population. At that time, the yield of spring was a minimum of 140 l / s.
Water supply is designed for the construction phase and the first phase was built sledeđe:
- Is tapped source of '' Šetonjske River '' and built catchment capacity of 600m3;
- Filter cells with a cell chlorination and mechanical equipment;
- Main supply line over a length of 13 495m, built of asbestos cement pipes;
- Distribution network for the town of Petrovac, built of asbestos cement pipes with a diameter of 200, 150, 125, 80 mm and the annular character. During the execution of the project of water mains made the changes to the project documentation in terms of changes in the diameter of the feed tube. 400mm diameter pipes are reduced to a diameter of 350mm, a pipe diameter of 300mm to 350mm. The main supply was designed and built from the source 'Šetonje' 'to Petrovac, a distance of 13 to 495m and 4485m from asbestos-cement pipes with a diameter of 350mm and 9000m asbestos-cement pipes with a diameter of 300 mm. (Kosovoprojekt, 1984)
By reducing the diameter of the pipe flow diminished the capacity of the system so that even with the projected diameters can not achieve optimal consumption.
So aqueduct built at first, until the advent of major droughts, has been meeting the needs until 1984 despite the fact that the entire industry benefited from the same water. The percentage of use of water from the municipal water supply at that time was: industry 70% and 30% of households. The above mentioned data are measured on the basis of, or the amount of water consumed, because they did not have water supply main gauge to measure the amount of water distributed at the source.
In 1984, the measured amount of water was 500 000m3 of water per year. Then answer a large excess of water at the source that drained van Šetonjsku captures the river, and the problems were the opposite of today - the water was, but it is the business of higher rainfall and rapid snowmelt mutila, and as such imprisoned in the castle for two to three times per year.
In 1985, appears already shortages of water from the municipal water supply, so that the drafting of technical documentation for capacity expansion and captures the entire city water system with a water purification station.
The concept of expanding the city water supply, and further development is designed so that it can be built in phases. 1985. The following has been done: made to broaden the catchment from 600m3 to 740m3 of water and pumping station was built, but only part of the building. Thus, the extension captures met the municipal water supply to 1990, when after years of drought periods reduce the minimum yield of water at the source, so that today the yield is reduced to 65-70 l / s. Decline in yield karst springs' Šetonjske River '' in recent years, especially in the summer months (June-September), as well as the continuous increase in spending with long-term stagnation in the construction of the water distribution system Petrovca caused in frequent water shortages, especially in multi-storey buildings.
Further development of the water supply system is conditioned by security: new quantities of drinking water, construction of reservoir space and the new main water supply to the city.